I would have thought that history had by now taught a “greater humility” when attempting to “distinguish good from harmful uses of racial criteria.” From the Black Codes, to discriminatory and destructive social welfare programs, to discrimination by individual government actors, bigotry has reared its ugly head time and again. Anyone who today thinks that some form of racial discrimination will prove “helpful” should thus tread cautiously, lest racial discriminators succeed (as they once did) in using such language to disguise more invidious motives. … Experts and elites have been wrong before — and they may prove to be wrong again.